History is a crucial part in the development of our society with out looking back we cannot go forward and we cannot learn from our mistakes.Ask the Brit
'French POW stayed on to leave dynasty of smithies'
Paul Jarman grandfather was a descendant of a prisoner from the Napoleonic wars imprisoned in Portchester Castle, who is believed to have had something to do with the making of the castle gates. When he was released, having no money to return to France, he walked into Portsmouth and got a job with a blacksmith near where the Kings Theatre is now. Apparently he was such a good worker he was given the Smithy when the owner retired.
Treaty of St. Germain: This Treaty punished Austria after World War One.
- The Austro-Hungarian Empire was broken up.
- The Austrian Army was reduced to 30,000 men.
- Reparations were never set.
- Austria wasn’t allowed Anschluss (to reunite with Germany neither politically nor economically)
- Only allowed one weapons factory in all of Austria.
- It wasn’t allowed an air force or a Navy although it was allowed a small 3 boat patrol for the Danube.
Treaty of Neuilly: This is a Treaty that punished Bulgaria after World War One.
- Land was lost to Yugoslavia.
- A limited Army of 20,000 men.
- Reparations were set at £100 million.
- No navy nor Air force.
- One weapons factory and a small patrol of 10 boats.
The Treaty of Trianon: This Treaty affected Hungary.
- Hungary was made a seperate country and was no longer part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. (Which no longer existed as a whole)
- It lost land to Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Romania and suprisingly Austria.
- A limited Army of 35,000 troops.
- No Navy or Air force but a 3 small boat patrol was allowed.
- Reparations were set at over £400 million.
The Treaties of Sevres and Lausanne: These Treaties affected Turkey.
Sevres: (A way to remember is that Sevres was Severe)
- Arabia was made independent.
- Turkey lost land to Greece and Bulgaria.
- A limited Army of 50,000 men.
- No Navy or Airforce.
- Allied troops were to stay in Turket to enforce military provisions.
- Although there were no reparations Turkey did have to pay the costs of Foreign troops in Turkey.
Lausanne: This made changes to Sevres.
- Turkey regained Eastern Thrace and Smyrna which it lost to Greece.
- No limits were placed on the Turkish Army.
For current GCSE History you will need to know at least 2 facts for each of these Treaties, they often only come up as 2 mark questions and it’s good to find a shared term such as ‘they lost land to Yugoslavia’.
When Hitler became German Chancellor in 1933, the League of Nations was holding the World Disarmament Conference. At this very conference Germany said it would willingly disarm if all other powers gave up their weapons and what is the likelyhood of that? very small. You see France wouldn’t agree as they feared attach from Germany and Britain wouldn’t agree because of their empire (1/4 of the world). So Germany left the conference claiming that there was no real wish for disarmament among the major powers. (This was a clever tactical move, it made Hitler and Germany seem democratic and completely innocent…they hadn’t done anything wrong)
In 1935 Hitler announced that he had built and air force (the luftwaffe) and that he was introducing conscription. He wished to create an army of 600,000 men. Although the Treaty of Versailles had banned conscription and limited the German Army to 100,000 men as well as banning an airforce, Britain, France and Italy did nothing to stop Germany.
2. The Saar rejoins Germany, 1935
In 1919 the Saar Coal Fiels were given to France for 15 years. When this period of time ran out, a referendum (public vote) was held to see whether the local people wanted to return to German rule. As around 90% of the population voed to be under German Rules. Hitler was delighted and claimed that the vote showed how popular his rule was.
3. The re-occupation of the Rhineland, 1936
At the Treaty of Versailles it was agreed that the Rhineland would not station any troops or weapons in the Rhineland- this was the area bordering France. Hitler argued that this left Germany open to attack from the west.
And so on March 7th 1936 he ordered his troops to march into the Rhineland. Because Hitler’s troops were no match for the French army, he had instructed them to withdraw if the French showed any signs of resistance. But Hitler was a good judge, he thought that the French wouldn’t act with out British support, and many British people thought he was just marching into his own backgarden. Neither Britain nor France wished to go to war to stop something which didn’t really worry them. So although the condemned Hitler’s remilitarisation of the Rhineland, Britain and France took no Action.
4. Making Allies-Links with Italy and Japan
Hitler knew that Britain, Russia and France were all suspicious of his policies. He also knew that he would need allies if he went to war, so he looked for them in other totalitarian regimes (dictatorships) Dictactors unite XD).
- On November 6th 1936, Germany and Italy signed the Rome-Berlin Axis, an agreement to co-operate. Italy felt threatened by Anglo-French objections to their desire to expand. Later that year, they both supported the nationalists in the Spanish Civil War, aallowing them to test their new military prowess and continue to fight against communism. (Fascism I.E Hitler is right wing vs. Communism I.E Stalin which is Left wing, two extremist political groups)
- On November 25th 1936, Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact. This was supposedly aimed at opposing communism internationally; it did not specifically name the USSR. Jpan broke the agreement signed at the Washington Conference with Britain, the USA, and France in 1921 which said it would not join with Germany.
- On November 6th 1937, Italy joined the Anti-Comintern Pact. The growing solidarity with Germany encouraged Mussolini’s invasion of Albania in April 1939. In May, the Rome-Berlin Axis became a military alliance, the Pact of Friendship and Alliance(awww…otherwise known as the Pact of Steel…not so aww). Each Agreed to help the other if in a war.
- On September 27th 1940, Japan joined the pat making the Tripartite Pact and extending the war to the Pacific. They soon refered to themselves as the Axis Powers (upon which the world revolved).
- Belgium saw how much trouble it was in and withdrew from an alliance with France and declared itself neutral on October 1936. Germany agreed to respect this neutrality in October 1937.
a) Describe one way in which Germany threatened France’s control of Morocco (2 marks)
b)Describe the key features of the Balkan Wars in 1912-13 (6 marks)
C) Explain the key reasons why there was Germanic hatred for the Treaty of Versailles (12 marks)
kuntbrigade asked: could you explain to me the failures of the league of nations? eg manchuria and abyssinia (but put it simply, i have never really understood and remembered this topic very well)
Okay, what i’ll do is put down key points to explain them.
We all know the Big two are Manchuria and Abyssinia which pretty much finished the League off in the end.
- Japan suffered severely from the Great Depression; by 1931 half its factories had closed and millions were unemployed. The only way for Japan to deal with its expanding population, lack of building land and raw materials was to gain more land. During the 20s China began to appear weak- it was a large country that did not appear to be controlled by a central government. It was the perfect place for Japan to gain more land.
- Japan had soldiers stationed in Manchuria to protect the railway; which had been built to help trade with China.
- On September 1931 part of the railway was blown up; the Japanese claimed that Chinese soldiers had blown up the railway while the Chinese strongly denied the allegations.
- On February 1932 the Japanese decided to set up their own government in Manchuria. They called the new area Manchukuo, the Japanese Army then sent gunboats and planes to Shanghai.
- China appealed to the League of Nations, while Japan argued that it was not being aggressive, just settling local trouble-China, they argued was not being properly governed and therefore it was important for the Japanese to go in to protect the railway which was an important investment to both the Chinese and Japanese…they said they were merely maintaining Law and Order… How lovely….
- The League had trouble arguing with Japan as Japan was on the League of Nations Council and so they sent League Officials to assess the situation this took a long time as the journey took several months.
- September 1932, a year after the railway was blown up, the League presented its report (Lytton investigation) The report stated that Manchuria was to be returned to the Chinese.
- February 1933, instead of withdrawing, Japan announced that it was going to invade China, why? Self defence!
- 24th February 1933, a vote of 42 to 1, voted that Japan must leave China (the one vote being Japan). Soon Japan resigned from the League and the next week invaded China
- Trade embargos could not be set on Japan as its main trading partner was the US who wasn’t in the League of Nations. Britain and France weren’t prepared to commit their armies and navies to a faraway place….the League was powerless to react unless some of the larger countries (US, USSR, Britain, France) took the time to act.
- By 1937 Japan had launched a full scale invasion of China.
- Italy wanted to expand its empire…Mussolini wanted ‘the new Roman Empire’ but unlike with Japan Italy was not far from Britain or France and Abyssinia has a border with British Sudan, Kenya, and British Somaliland. This time the League could not claim it was too far away.
- Unfortunately Italy needs to be happy so that Britain and France could send their ships through the Mediterranean to get the Suez Canal.
- December 1934- there was a bust up between Italian troops and Abyssinian tribesmen at the WalWal Oasis, 80km inside Abyssinian territory. Mussolini argued that the Oasis was actually Italian territory and therefore demanded an apology. If this failed to happen then Italy would Invade.
- Haile Selasse, the Emperor of Abyssinia appealed to the League of Nations for aid.
- January 1935-October 1935- Mussolini pretended that he was negotiating with the League to find a solution while he was shipping a large Army and armaments down the Suez Canal into Easter Africa. Britain and France failed to take the situation seriously. They hoped to keep Mussolini happy so that he would be an ally against Hitler. The proof of this is the Stresa Pact signed in 1935 which showed how occupied with Germany both countries were.
- 4th September 1935- after 8 months of hardly anything being done, a committee reported to the League that neither Abyssinia nor Italy could be held responsible for the WalWal incident and to add insult to injury, the League decided that some of Abyssinia should be given to Italy….Mussolini rejected this.
- October 1935- Mussolini’s army was ready and launched for a full scale attack. A large modern army again tribesmen. Italy was a bully and the League was in the correct place to do something and so…
- They set up a committee to decide what, if any, sanctions should be set. It was decided that they should- Ban arms sales to Italy, Ban loans to Italy, Ban all Italian imports, Ban export to Italy of rubber, tin and metal…but they delayed a decision on the sale of oil to Italy and failed to close the Suez Canal to Italian Shipping.
- Meanwhile, British and French foreign secretaries- Hoare and Laval- were doing secret deals with Italy, naughty naughty. They promised Italy 2/3 of Abyssinia, provided they call off the invasion. The US got to hear this and were so angry that they actually stepped up to export oil to Italy just to teach France and Britain a lesson.
- March 1936-Hitler marched into the Rhineland and France was desperate for Italian support, so by May 1936 Italy was allowed to take Adis Ababa, the Capital of Abyssinia and Haile Selassie was forced to leave the country.
- In conclusion it was shown that Britain and France were completely self involved and didn’t like to stick their neck out to help with problems…the League was seen as a failure.
I’ve tried to put both Abyssinia and Manchuria simply but unfortunatly unlike Vilna and other incidents they are quite large and filled with detail and so it’s hard to scale them down.